) KEY ADJECTIVE:
- Of or relating to struggle within a nation, organization, or group.
- Mutually destructive; ruinous or fatal to both sides.
- Characterized by bloodshed or carnage.
, variant of internecvus
, from internecre
, to slaughter
, intensive pref.
; see inter-
+ nex, nec-
; see nek-1
in Indo-European rootsWORD HISTORY:
When is a mistake not a mistake? In language at least, the answer to this question is "When everyone adopts it," and on rare occasions, "When it's in the dictionary." The word internecine
presents a case in point. Today, it usually has the meaning "relating to internal struggle," but in its first recorded use in English, in 1663, it meant "fought to the death." How it got from one sense to another is an interesting story in the history of English. The Latin source of the word, spelled both internecnus
meant "fought to the death, murderous." It is a derivative of the verb necre,
"to kill." The prefix inter-
was here used not in the usual sense "between, mutual" but rather as an intensifier meaning "all the way, to the death." This piece of knowledge was unknown to Samuel Johnson, however, when he was working on his great dictionary in the 18th century. He included internecine
in his dictionary but misunderstood the prefix and defined the word as "endeavoring mutual destruction." Johnson was not taken to task for this error. On the contrary, his dictionary was so popular and considered so authoritative that this error became widely adopted as correct usage. The error was further compounded when internecine
acquired the sense "relating to internal struggle." This story thus illustrates how dictionaries are often viewed as providing norms and how the ultimate arbiter in language, even for the dictionary itself, is popular usage.