18971986, American authority on international law, b. New York City, grad. Hamilton College, 1919, LL.B. Yale, 1924, Ph.D. Columbia, 1927. He was admitted (1925) to the bar, and from 1925 to 1961 he taught international law and diplomacy at Columbia. He served (1943) in the foreign relief and rehabilitation office in the Dept. of State and later was (194344) assistant secretary-general of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration and a delegate (1944) at the Bretton Woods monetary conference. Then he served (1948) in the UN General Assembly. He became (1948) U.S. delegate on the UN Security Council and took a leading part in the UN debate on the Berlin blockade. He was appointed a delegate to the UN General Assembly in 1951 and an alternate delegate in 1952. He resigned (Jan., 1953) and returned to his teaching duties at Columbia. He was later (196170) a judge of the International Court of Justice at The Hague. His works include a biography of Elihu Root (2 vol., 1938), A Modern Law of Nations (1948), Controls for Outer Space (1959), The Price of International Justice (1971), and The Birth of Nations (1974).