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Pronunciation Key
Columbia University Press

symbol   sofa (sō´fsymbol), item (ī´tsymbolm), easily (ē´zsymbollē), cannon (kăn´symboln), circus (sûr´ksymbols)  
ă   act (ăkt), bat (băt)  
ā   ape (āp), fail (fāl), day (dā)  
â   air (âr), care (kâr)  
ä   art (ärt), father (fä´ŧħsymbolr)  
b   back (băk), labor (lā´bsymbolr), cab (kăb)  
ch   chin (chĭn), hatchet (hăch´symbolt), rich (rĭch)  
d   dock (dŏk), lady (lā´dē), sad (săd)  
ĕ   end (ĕnd), steady (stĕd´ē), met (mĕt)  
ē   eve (ēv), clear (klēr), see (sē)  
f   fat (făt), phase (fāz), cough (kôf)  
g   get (gĕt), bigger (bĭg´symbolr), tag (tăg)  
h   hand (hănd), ahead (symbolhĕd´)  
hw   wheel (hwēl), which (hwĭch)  
ĭ   it (ĭt), pill (pĭl), mirror (mĭr´symbolr)  
ī   iron (ī´symbolrn), eye (ī), buyer (bī´symbolr)  
j   jam (jăm), ginger (jĭn´jsymbolr), edge (ĕj)  
k   kit (kĭt), tackle (tăk´symboll), cook (ksymbolk)  
l   little (lĭt´symboll), holly (hŏl´ē), pull (psymboll)  
m   man (măn), hammer (hăm´symbolr), climb (klīm)  
n   new (nsymbol), known (nōn), winner (wĭn´symbolr)  
ng   singing (sĭng´ĭng), finger (fĭng´gsymbolr), sang (săng), sank (săngk)  
ŏ   hot (hŏt), body (bŏd´ē)  
ō   over (ō´vsymbolr), hope (hōp), grow (grō)  
ô   orbit (ôr´bĭt), fall (fôl), saw (sô)  
symbol   foot (fsymbolt), wolf (wsymbollf), put (psymbolt), pure (pysymbolr)  
symbol   boot (bsymbolt), lose (lsymbolz), drew (drsymbol), true (trsymbol)  
oi   oil (oil), royal (roi´symboll), boy (boi)  
ou   out (out), crowd (kroud), how (hou)  
p   pipe (pīp), happy (hăp´ē)  
r   road (rōd), appeared (symbolpērd´), carpenter (kär´psymbolntsymbolr)  
s   so (sō), cite (sīt), baste (bāst)  
sh   shall (shăl), sure (shsymbolr), nation (nā´shsymboln)  
t   tight (tīt), better (bĕt´symbolr), talked (tôkt)  
th   thin (thĭn), bath (băth)  
ŧħ   then (ŧħĕn), father (fä´ŧħsymbolr), bathe (bāŧħ)  
ŭ   but (bŭt), flood (flŭd), some (sŭm)  
û   curl (kûrl), girl (gûrl), fern (fûrn), worm (wûrm)  
v   vest (vĕst), trivial (trĭv´ēsymboll), eve (ēv)  
w   wax (wăks), twins (twĭnz)  
y   you (ysymbol), onion (ŭn´ysymboln)  
z   zipper (zĭp´symbolr), ease (ēz), treads (trĕdz)  
zh   pleasure (plĕzh´symbolr), rouge (rsymbolzh)  
 
FOREIGN SOUNDS
ö   as in French peu (pö), German Goethe (gö´tsymbol)  
ü   as in French Cluny (klünē´)  
kh   as in German ach (äkh), ich (ĭkh); Scottish loch (lŏkh)  
N   this symbol indicates that the preceding vowel is nasal as in French cinq (săNk), un (öN), sans (säN), tombe (tôNb), en (äN); Portuguese São João (souN zhwouN)  
 
ACCENTS AND HYPHENS
´   primary accent, written after accented vowel or syllable: Nebraska (nsymbolbrăs´ksymbol), James Buchanan (bysymbolkă´nsymboln)  
´´   secondary accent: Mississippi (mĭs´´symbolsĭp´ē)  
—   dash, replacing obvious portion of pronunciation: hegemony (hĭjĕm´symbolnē, hē—, hēj´symbolmō´´nē, hĕg´symbol—)  
-   hyphen, to prevent ambiguity in syllabification: Erlanger (ûr´lăng-symbolr), dishearten (dĭs-här´tsymboln)