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Abbreviations
Columbia University Press

Å=angstrom  
AA=Alcoholics Anonymous  
AAA=Agricultural Adjustment Act; Agricultural Adjustment Administration; Agricultural Adjustment Agency  
AAU=Amateur Athletic Union  
A.B.=Artium Baccalaureus [Bachelor of Arts]  
ABA=American Bar Association, American Basketball Association  
abbr.=abbreviation(s), abbreviated  
abr.=abridged  
AC=alternating current  
Acad.=Academy  
ACLU=American Civil Liberties Union  
A.D.=anno Domini [in the year of the Lord]  
AEC=Atomic Energy Commission  
AFL=American Federation of Labor  
AFL-CIO=American Federation of Labor—Congress of Industrial Organizations  
Afrik.=Afrikaans  
AIA=American Institute of Architects  
AKC=American Kennel Club  
AL=American League (baseball)  
ALA=American Library Association  
Ala.=Alabama  
alt.=altitude  
Alta.=Alberta  
A.M.=Artium Magister [Master of Arts]  
A.M.=ante meridiem [before noon]  
AM=amplitude modulation  
AMA=American Medical Association  
amp=ampere(s)  
amp-hr=ampere-hour(s)  
amu=atomic mass unit(s)  
antilog=antilogarithm  
AP=Associated Press  
Arab.=Arabic  
Ariz.=Arizona  
Ark.=Arkansas  
A.S.=Anglo-Saxon  
ASCAP=American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers Assn.=Association  
ASSR=Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  
at. no.=atomic number  
AT&T=American Telephone and Telegraph Company  
at. wt.=atomic weight  
AU=African Union; astronomical unit(s)  
Aug.=August  
AV=Authorized Version  
avdp.=avoirdupois  
Ave.=Avenue  
b.=born, born in  
B.A.=Bachelor of Arts  
BBC=British Broadcasting Corporation  
B.C.=before Christ  
B.D.=Bachelor of Divinity  
B.Lit.=Bachelor of Literature  
B.Mus.=Bachelor of Music  
b.p.=boiling point  
Brig. Gen.=Brigadier General  
B.S.=Bachelor of Science  
Btu=British thermal unit(s)  
Bul.=Bulletin  
Bulg.=Bulgarian  
C=Celsius (centigrade)  
c.=circa [about]  
cal=calorie(s)  
Calif.=California  
Cant.=Canticles (Song of Solomon)  
Capt.=Captain  
CARE=Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere  
cc=cubic centimeter(s)  
cd=candela(s)  
cent.=century, centuries  
CENTO=Central Treaty Organization  
CEO=chief executive officer  
cgs=centimeter-gram-second  
Chem.E.=Chemical Engineering  
Chin.=Chinese  
Chron.=Chronicles  
CIA=Central Intelligence Agency  
CID=Criminal Investigation Department  
CIO=Congress of Industrial Organizations  
cm=centimeter(s)  
cm/sec2=centimeter(s) per second per second  
co.=county  
Co.=County  
Col.=Colonel, Colossians  
Coll.=Collection  
Colo.=Colorado  
Comdr.=Commander  
COMECON=Council for Mutual Economic Assistance  
comp.=compiled, compiler  
com. pop.=commune population  
Comsat=Communications Satellite Corp.  
Conn.=Connecticut  
Cor.=Corinthians  
CORE=Congress of Racial Equality  
Corp.=Corporation  
cos=cosine  
cot=cotangent  
coul=coulomb(s)  
CPA=Certified Public Accountant  
Cpl.=Corporal  
CPO=Chief Petty Officer  
csc=cosecant  
cu=cubic  
d.=died, died in  
Dan.=Daniel; Danish  
DAR=Daughters of the American Revolution  
dB=decibel(s)  
D.C.=District of Columbia  
DC=direct current  
D.C.L.=doctor of Civil Law  
D.D.=Doctor of Divinity  
D.D.S.=Doctor of Dental Surgery  
DDT=dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane  
Dec.=December  
dec.=declination  
Del.=Delaware  
dept.=department  
Deut.=Deuteronomy  
dir.=directed, director  
dist.=district  
div.=division  
DNA=deoxyribonucleic acid  
Dr.=doctor  
dr.=dram(s)  
D.Sc.=Doctor of Science  
Du.=Dutch  
E=east  
EC=European Community  
ECA=Economic Cooperation Administration  
Eccles.=Ecclesiastes  
Ecclus.=Ecclesiasticus  
ECSC=European Coal and Steel Community  
ed.=edited, edition, editor(s)  
EDC=European Defense Community  
E.E.=Electrical Engineering  
EEA=European Economic Area  
EEC=European Economic Community  
EFTA=European Free Trade Association  
e.g.=exempli gratia [for example]  
emf=electromotive force  
emu=electromagnetic unit(s)  
Eng.=English  
enl.=enlarged  
EEOC=Equal Employment Opportunity Commission  
Eph.=Ephesians  
ERA=Emergency Relief Administration; Equal Rights Amendment  
ERP=European Recovery Program  
ESC=Economic and Social Council (UN)  
ESP=extrasensory perception  
est.=established; estimated  
et al.=et alii [and others]  
EU=European Union  
eV=electron volts  
Ex.=Exodus  
Ezek.=Ezekiel  
F=Fahrenheit; farad  
F=faces; force; formal  
FAA=Federal Aviation Administration  
fac.=facsimile  
FAO=Food and Agriculture Organization  
FBI=Federal Bureau of Investigation  
FCC=Federal Communications Commission  
FDA=Food and Drug Administration  
Feb.=February  
FEPC=Fair Employment Practices Committee  
Finn.=Finnish  
fl.=floruit [flourished]  
Fla.=Florida  
fl oz=fluid ounce(s)  
FM=frequency modulation  
Fr.=French  
Ft.=Fort  
ft=foot, feet  
FTC=Federal Trade Commission  
ft-lb=foot-pound(s)  
G=gauss  
Ga.=Georgia  
Gal.=Galatians  
gal.=gallon(s)  
Gall.=Gallery  
GATT=General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade  
GDP=gross domestic product  
Gen.=General, Genesis  
Ger.=German  
GeV=billion electron volts  
GHz=gigahertz  
GMT=Greenwich mean time  
GNP=gross national product  
GOP=Grand Old Party (Republican Party)  
Gov.=Governor  
Gr.=Greek  
grad.=graduated, graduated at  
H=henry  
h=hour  
Hab.=Habakkuk  
Hag.=Haggai  
Heb.=Hebrew; Hebrews (NT)  
H.M.S.=His (Her) Majesty's Ship; His (Her) Majesty's Service  
Hon.=the Honorable  
hp=horsepower  
hr=hour(s)  
Hung.=Hungarian  
Hz=hertz or cycle(s) per second  
IAU=International Astronomical Union  
IBM=International Business Machines Corp.  
IBT=International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen, and Helpers of America (Teamsters Union)  
ICAO=International Civil Aviation Organization  
ICBM=intercontinental ballistic missile  
ICC=Interstate Commerce Commission  
Icel.=Icelandic  
i.e.=id est [that is]  
IGY=International Geophysical Year  
ILGWU=International Ladies Garment Workers Union  
Ill.=Illinois  
ILO=International Labor Organization  
IMF=International Monetary Fund  
in.=inch(es)  
inc.=incorporated  
Ind.=Indiana  
Inst.=Institute, Institution  
introd.=introduction  
IQ=intelligence quotient  
IRA=Individual Retirement Account; Irish Republican Army  
IRBM=intermediate-range ballistic missile  
IRS=Internal Revenue Service  
Isa.=Isaiah  
Ital.=Italian  
ITU=International Telecommunications Union  
IUPAC=International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry  
IWW=Industrial Workers of the World  
j=joule(s)  
Jan.=January  
Jap.=Japanese  
J.D.=Juris Doctor [Doctor of Law]  
Jer.=Jeremiah  
jg=junior grade  
Jr.=Junior  
K=Kelvin  
Kans.=Kansas  
kc=kilocycle(s)  
kg=kilogram(s)  
KGB=Komityet Gosudarstvyennoy Byezopasnosti [Committee for State Security]  
kgm=kilogram meter(s)  
KKK=Ku Klux Klan  
kl=kiloliter(s)  
km=kilometer(s)  
kw=kilowatt(s)  
kwh=kilowatt hour(s)  
Ky.=Kentucky  
£=librae [pounds]  
La.=Louisiana  
Lam.=Lamentations  
Lat.=Latin  
lat.=latitude  
lb=libra [pound], librae [pounds]  
Lev.=Leviticus  
L.H.D.=Litterarum Humaniorum Doctor [Doctor of Humane  
Letters]  
Lib.=Library  
lim=limit  
Lith.=Lithuanian  
Litt.B.=Litterarum Baccalaureus [Bachelor of Literature]  
Litt.D.=Litterarum Doctor [Doctor of Literature]  
LL.B.=Legum Baccalaureus [Bachelor of Laws]  
LL.D.=Legum Doctor [Doctor of Laws]  
ln=logarithm, natural  
log=logarithm  
long.=longitude  
LSD=lysergic acid diethylamide  
Lt.=Lieutenant  
Lt. Col.=Lieutenant Colonel  
Ltd.=Limited  
Lt. Gen.=Lieutenant General  
Lt. Gov.=Lieutenant Governor  
M=molar  
m=meter(s)  
m=molal  
m=minute(s)  
M.A.=Masters of Arts  
Mac.=Maccabees  
Maj. Gen.=Major General  
Mal.=Malachi  
Man.=Manitoba  
Mass.=Massachusetts  
mass no.=mass number  
Mat.=Matthew  
M.D.=Medicinae Doctor [Doctor of Medicine]  
Md.=Maryland  
M.E.=Mechanical Engineering; Middle English  
MeV=million electron volts  
Mex.=Mexican  
mg=milligram(s)  
M.H.G.=Middle High German  
mi=mile(s)  
Mich.=Michigan  
min=minute(s)  
Minn.=Minnesota  
Miss.=Mississippi  
mks=meter-kilogram-second  
ml=milliliter(s)  
Mlle=Mademoiselle [Miss]  
mm=millimeter(s)  
Mme=Madame [Mrs.]  
Mo.=Missouri  
Mont.=Montana  
m.p.=melting point  
M.P.A.=Master of Public Administration  
mph=miles per hour  
Mr.=Mister (always abbreviated)  
Mrs.=Mistress (always abbreviated)  
M.S.=Master of Science  
MS, MSS=manuscript(s)  
Ms.=variant of Miss or Mrs. that does not indicate marital status (not a true abbreviation)  
m/sec2=meters per second per second  
Msgr=Monsignor  
mt.=mountain  
Mt.=Mount, Mountain  
mts.=mountains  
Mts.=Mountains  
Mus.=Museum  
Mus.B.=Musicae Baccalaureus [Bachelor of Music]  
Mus.D.=Musicae Doctor [Doctor of Music]  
N=north; Newton(s)  
N=normal (unit of measure)  
NAACP=National Association for the Advancement of Colored People  
NAFTA=North American Free Trade Agreement  
NASA=National Aeronautics and Space Administration  
Nasdaq=National Association of Securities Dealers Automatic Quotations  
NATO=North Atlantic Treaty Organization  
N.B.=New Brunswick  
NBA=National Basketball Association  
N.C.=North Carolina  
NCAA=National Collegiate Athletic Association  
NCO=Noncommissioned Officer  
N.Dak.=North Dakota  
NE=northeast  
NEA=National Education Association  
Nebr.=Nebraska  
Neh.=Nehemiah  
Nev.=Nevada  
New Lat.=New Latin  
N.F.=Newfoundland  
NFL=National Football League  
N.H.=New Hampshire  
NHL=National Hockey League  
N.J.=New Jersey  
NL=National League (baseball)  
NLRB=National Labor Relations Board  
N.Mex.=New Mexico  
NNW=northwest  
no.=numero [number]  
Nor.=Norwegian  
Nov.=November  
NRA=National Recovery Administration  
NRC=Nuclear Regulatory Commission  
N.S.=New Style; Nova Scotia  
NSF=National Science Foundation  
Num.=Numbers  
N.Y.=New York  
NYA=National Youth Administration  
NYSE=New York Stock Exchange  
OAS=Organization of American States  
Obad.=Obadiah  
Oct.=October  
O.E.=Old English  
OECD=Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development  
OEO=Office of Economic Opportunity  
OES=Office of Economic Stabilization  
O.Fr.=Old French  
O.H.G.=Old High German  
Okla.=Oklahoma  
O.N.=Old Norse  
Ont.=Ontario  
Op.=Opus [work]  
OPA=Office of Price Administration  
Oreg.=Oregon  
O.S.=Old Style  
OSCE=Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe  
OSS=Office of Strategic Services  
oz=ounce(s)  
Pa.=Pennsylvania  
PAU=Pan American Union  
Pd.D.=Pedagogiae Doctor [Doctor of Pedagogy]  
P.E.I.=Prince Edward Island  
Pers.=Persian  
PFC=Private First Class  
PGA=Professional Golfers Association  
Ph.B.=Philosophiae Baccalaureus [Bachelor of Philosophy]  
Ph.D.=Philosophiae Doctor [Doctor of Philosophy]  
Philip.=Philippians  
pl.=plural  
PLC=public limited company  
P.M.=post meridiem [afternoon]  
PO=Petty Officer  
Pol.=Polish  
pop.=population  
Port.=Portuguese  
Pr. of Manas.=Prayer of Manasses  
Prov.=Proverbs  
prov(s).=province(s)  
Ps.=Psalm  
pseud.=pseudonym  
Pss.=Psalms  
pt.=part(s)  
pt=pint(s)  
pub.=published; publisher  
Pvt.=Private  
PWA=Public Works Administration  
qt=quart(s)  
Que.=Quebec  
R=Roentgen  
R.A.=right ascension  
RAF=Royal Air Force  
repr.=reprinted  
Rev.=Revelation; the Reverend  
rev.=revised  
R.I.=Rhode Island  
R.N.=registered nurse  
RNA=ribonucleic acid  
Rom.=Romanian, Romans  
ROTC=Reserve Officers Training Corps  
rpm=revolution(s) per minute  
RR=railroad  
RSFSR=Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic  
RSV=Revised Standard Version  
Rt. Rev.=the Right Reverend  
Rus.=Russian  
RV=Revised Version  
S=south  
s=second(s)  
Sam.=Samuel  
Sask.=Saskatchewan  
S.C.=South Carolina  
Sc.D.=Scientiae Doctor [Doctor of Science]  
S.Dak.=South Dakota  
SE=southeast  
SEATO=Southeast Asia Treaty Organization  
SEC=Securities and Exchange Commission  
sec=second(s); secant  
Sept.=September  
Ser.=Series  
Sgt.=Sergeant  
sin=sine  
S.J.=Societas Jesu [Society of Jesus]  
Skt.=Sanskrit  
Song=Song of Solomon  
SOS=distress signal (not a true abbreviation)  
Span.=Spanish  
SPCA=Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals  
SPCC=Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children  
sp. gr.=specific gravity  
sq=square  
Sr.=Senior  
S.S.=Steamship  
SSR=Soviet Socialist Republic  
St.=Saint; Street  
S.T.D.=Sacrae Theologiae Doctor [Doctor of Sacred  
Theology]  
Ste=Sainte [feminine of Saint]  
STP=standard temperature and pressure  
SW=southwest  
Swed.=Swedish  
tan=tangent  
TASS=Telegraphnoye Agentstvo Sovyetskovo Soyuza [Soviet  
News Agency]  
Tenn.=Tennessee  
Tex.=Texas  
Thess.=Thessalonians  
Tim.=Timothy  
TNT=trinitrotoluene, trinitrototoluol  
tr.=translated, translation, translator(s)  
Turk.=Turkish  
TVA=Tennessee Valley Authority  
UAW=United Automobile Workers  
UHF=ultrahigh frequency  
Ukr.=Ukrainian  
UMW=United Mine Workers  
UN=United Nations  
UNESCO=United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural  
Organization  
UNICEF=United Nations Children's Fund  
uninc.=unincorporated  
Univ.=University  
UNRRA=United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration  
UPI=United Press International  
U.S.=United States  
USA=United States Army  
USAF=United States Air Force  
USCG=United States Coast Guard  
USMC=United States Marine Corps  
USN=United States Navy  
USO=United Service Organization  
U.S.S.=United States Ship  
USSR=Union of Soviet Socialist Republics  
UT=universal time  
V=volt(s)  
v.=versus  
VA=Department of Veterans Affairs; Veterans Administration  
Va.=Virginia  
var.=variety (in botany)  
Ved.=Vedic  
VFW=Veterans of Foreign Wars  
VHF=very high frequency  
VISTA=Volunteers in Service to America  
vol.=volume(s)  
vs.=versus  
Vt.=Vermont  
W=west; watt(s)  
WAC=Women's Army Corps  
Wash.=Washington  
WAVES=Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service (United States  
Women's Naval Reserve)  
WCTU=Women's Christian Temperance Union  
WEU=Western European Union  
WFTU=World Federation of Trade Unions  
WHO=World Health Organization  
Wis.=Wisconsin  
WMO=World Meteorological Organization  
WPA=Work Projects Administration  
wt.=weight  
WTO=World Trade Organization  
W.Va.=West Virginia  
Wyo.=Wyoming  
yd=yard(s)  
YMCA=Young Men's Christian Association  
YMHA=Young Men's Hebrew Association  
YWCA=Young Women's Christian Association  
YWHA=Young Women's Hebrew Association  
Zech.=Zechariah  
Zeph.=Zephaniah