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The Extremities


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II. Osteology
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The Extremities
The bones by which the upper and lower limbs are attached to the trunk constitute respectively the shoulder and pelvic girdles. The shoulder girdle or girdle of the superior extremity is formed by the scapulæ and clavicles, and is imperfect in front and behind. In front, however, it is completed by the upper end of the sternum, with which the medial ends of the clavicles articulate. Behind, it is widely imperfect, the scapulæ being connected to the trunk by muscles only. The pelvic girdle or girdle of the inferior extremity is formed by the hip bones, which articulate with each other in front, at the symphysis pubis. It is imperfect behind, but the gap is filled in by the upper part of the sacrum. The pelvic girdle, with the sacrum, is a complete ring, massive and comparatively rigid, in marked contrast to the lightness and mobility of the shoulder girdle.   1